Forum no.24: Copenhagen and Beyond
Key note Speakers:
1. Dr. Sumaya Ahmed Zakeldeen IES – U of K
2. Dr. Saadaldeen Ibrahim (Forum Chairman) HCENR
Past emissions are estimated to involve some unavoidable warming even if atmospheric GHG concentrations remain at the year 2000 levels.
* There are some impacts for which adaptation is the only available and appropriate response.
* By 2020 water stress is likely to hit75-250 million people and the productivity of crops in rained parts of Africa to decline by 50
* The international political response to climate change began with the adoption of the UNFCCC in 1992, to avoid “dangerous anthropogenic interference” with the climate system. The UNFCCC entered into force on 21 March 1994 and now has 194 parties.
* The Kyoto Protocol entered into force on 16 February 2005 and currently has 190 parties.
* Bali Action Plan (BAP) was launched as comprehensive process to enable the full, effective and sustained implementation of the Convention through long-term cooperative action, now valid up to 2012.
* The way to Copenhagen passed through Bali and Kyoto.
* The AD HOC Working Group on Long-term Cooperative Action (AWG-LCA) was formed and mandated to achieve the goal of BAP.
* BAP was supposed to achieve agreed outcome and adopt a decision at the fifteenth session of the Conference of Parties (COP) in 2009.
* Because of political motives Copenhagen agreement was not comprehensive, lacks clarity and is open to different interpretations. It was not successful and out of the UN umbrella.
* Sudan was the leader of (G77+China) and played a major role in putting this group together to protect their environmental rights.
* The developed countries including Denmark were in difference.
* Some countries submitted emission reduction actions, but have not indicated their association with the Accord (e.g-Brazil, China, India).
In mitigation it is agreed that Annex I countries would “commit to economy-wide emissions targets for 2020” to be submitted by 31 January 2010 and agrees that these Parties to the Kyoto Protocol would strengthen their existing targets. Delivery of reductions and finance by these countries will be Measured, Reported and Verified (MRV) in accordance with COP guidelines
* Recognizes “the crucial role of reducing emission from deforestation and forest degradation and the need to enhance removals of greenhouse gas emission by forests”, and the need to establish a mechanism to enable the mobilization of financial resources from developed countries to help achieve this.
* Calls for “an assessment of the implementation of this Accord to be completed by 2015. This would include consideration of strengthening the long-term goal”, for example to limit temperature rises to 1.5 C degrees only.
* One of Copenhagen problems is that the accord itself is not legally binding.
* It was not clear if Copenhagen is a new accord or just completing Kyoto protocol.
* The accord was drafted by only five countries!
* There is no guarantee or information on where and when the climate funds will come from. Copenhagen made for economic security of a few nations!!
Cop. (December 2009) delegates, only “took note” of the Accord rather than adopting it.
For Dr. Sumaya Ahmed Zakeldeen Presentation Click here