Key note Speakers:
- Dr. AbdAlmonem Osman Kardash
- Dr. Areej G. Bakhet.
*The two most widely used Biofuels are ethanol (substitute for benzene) and Biodiesel (substitute for diesel).
* Ethanol feed stock are sugar cane, sugar beets, & maize, while biodiesel is made of vegetable oil, rapeseed & soybeans.
* Biofuels are sulfur & lead free, they are considered renewable energy. They mitigate climate change and maximize the benefits of Agro-Industry.
*Growing Biofuel crops on cleared forest or grassland increase GHGs and makes food shortage with high prices.
* Biodiesel reduces emission of Co2 and hydrocarbon, but increase emissions of nitrogen oxides (300 times greater).
* Mismanagement of biofuel production will result in loss of habitat thus biodiversity and increase usage of agrochemicals, soil deterioration and unsustainable water use.
* Depending on the feedstock, the processing of ethanol requires massive amount of water, waste water discharge is another problem to handle.
* It is very important to focus on sustainability rather than only profitability, that is: empty stomach vs. full gas tank or balancing of demand for food with biofuels, so it is very important to anticipate the future impacts of all issue (net positive impact).
* The environmental benefits of biofuel should not be assumed but need to be examined on an individual basis.
* Biofuels and MDGs.
* World energy consumption & climate change.
* Biofuels chemistry, properties, primary and final energy forms.
* Energy balance in Sudan by type & Sector.
* Biofuels should be from agriculture wastes, never food crops.