Forum no.45: Radio active waste management

Forum no.45 : Radio active waste management

Keynote speaker:

Hajo Idriss. Researcher at Sudan atomic energy commission .

Summary :

1. Radio active waste is defined as a waste consisting of radio –nucleotides the concentration of which exceeds levels adopted by IAEA.

2. The objective of this management is the protection of the population and the environment from the harm caused by the adverse impact of different radiations.

3. The basic concept of such a radiation management is based on:

a) The time of exposure

b) The appropriate shielding against radiation

c) The distance from the sources

4. The classification of radioactive waste is according to:

a) Chemical properties (acidic, alkaline)

b) Activity (high, intermediate, low)

c) Type of radiation (Gamma, Alpha, Neutron ,Beta)

d) Half-life (long, medium, short)

e) Physical properties (liquid, gas, solid)

5. There are different sources of radio active radiations such as:

a) Oil drilling, (NORM waste {238U ,226Rn 222Rn)

b) Medical,, (60Co ,137Cs and 125,131I)

c) Reactor, (Spent fuel and Fuel processing)

d) Industry, (90Sr ,192Ir and Am Be)

e) Military, (use of depleted Uranium)

f) And Mining , (238U ,226Rn 222Rn)

6. The adverse impacts are caused by stripping away electrons from atoms and by breaking some chemical bonds.

7. The adverse health effects caused by radiation are classified into two:

a) Stochastic effects:are effects that occur on a random basis with its effect being independent of the size of dose. The effect typically has no threshold and is based on probabilities, with the chances of seeing the effect increasing with dose. ex, Cancer is a stochastic effect.

b) Non-stochastic effect: are effects that can be related directly to the dose received. The effect is more severe with a higher dose, i.e., the burn gets worse as dose increases. It typically has a threshold, below which the effect will not occur. A skin burn from radiation is a non-stochastic effect.

8. Radio-active exposure causes cancer depending on the ability of the immune system to defend the body against it, however children are more sensitive to radiation than adults because they grow rapidly and their cells are dividing more than those of adults.

9. Radiation enters the body through inhalation and ingestion internally or externally.

10. The main stages of radioactive waste management (waste processing) are:

a) Pretreatment (Collection, Sorting, chemical adjustment, Decontamination)

b) Treatment (size reduction, removable of radionuclides , chemical adjustment)

c) Conditioning (solidification, Incorporation into a matrix, enclosure into containers, additional package development)

d) Storage, disposal.

11. The main safety protection equipment contains Special overalls and aprons, shielding, Special gloves, Special shoes and Special masks.



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